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Main Reasons for Vaginal Bleeding After Sex. 5 Most Common Causes

Vaginal bleeding that occurs between periods most often bears evidence of a certain pathology. Vaginal bleeding after sex is perhaps the most adverse symptom. It may be indicative to traumatic affection of vaginal mucous lining, presence of cervical polyps, erosion, cervical or endometrial cancer, threatened miscarriage in pregnant women. Conditions, related to oncology, can be monitored via annual preventive examinations by a gynecologist.

Pathological vaginal bleeding, which has acyclic nature that is to say is not related to periods in any way, is referred to as metrorrhagia. Vaginal bleeding after sex (post-coital bleeding) is one of the varieties of this phenomenon.

Bloody discharge can be scant, moderate or intense. The latter can provoke hemorrhagic shock (a dangerous condition, which involves much blood loss).

There are several causes for bleeding after sex.

Vaginal bleeding that occurs between periods most often bears evidence of a certain pathology. Vaginal bleeding after sex is perhaps the most adverse symptom. It may be indicative to traumatic affection of vaginal mucous lining, presence of cervical polyps, erosion, cervical or endometrial cancer, threatened miscarriage in pregnant women. Conditions, related to oncology, can be monitored via annual preventive examinations by a gynecologist.

Pathological vaginal bleeding, which has acyclic nature that is to say is not related to periods in any way, is referred to as metrorrhagia. Vaginal bleeding after sex (post-coital bleeding) is one of the varieties of this phenomenon.

Bloody discharge can be scant, moderate or intense. The latter can provoke hemorrhagic shock (a dangerous condition, which involves much blood loss).

There are several causes for bleeding after sex.

Traumatic bleeding

In fact, though the word «trauma» sounds rather aggressive, it presents the least threatening etiological ground for post-coital bleeding. Mucous lining of the vagina can be affected in the result of extremely rough sex or an act of violence.

At the same time very often women, who have stepped over menopause, observe spotting after intercourse in combination with painful sensations. This has to do with atrophic processes in the reproductive apparatus – the amount of lubrication reduces, while the outer layer of mucous lining becomes thin and atrophied. Such a complex of symptoms is a common source of micro fractures and fissures.

Brown spotting can be observed on the underwear for a few days following the trauma. In this period it is important to prevent infection of affected areas and development of inflammation, which can fall into line with the trauma. Preventive measures against traumas in postmenopausal period include usage of special ointments and lubricants. The same products can be used by breastfeeding mothers to prevent traumas of vaginal lining, since they also have insufficient mucous discharge for a painless intercourse.

Cervical polyps

Formation of polyps in the cervical canal of the uterus is a nonmalignant process. Spotting between periods, including vaginal bleeding after sex, is a typical symptom of this disease. Despite of seemingly not threatening nature, polyposis requires constant medical supervision with subsequent decision regarding surgical treatment. Apart from all the above mentioned, cervical polyps can lead to development of infertility.

Precancerous lesion and cervical cancer

Changes of cervical epithelium, known as dysplasia, erosion and precancerous lesion, do not constitute serious danger as long as they do not transform into cancer. All these conditions, including the malignant variant, often do not have any symptoms or the symptoms do not show up vividly. Therefore, unfortunately, patients often seek medical help when the disease has already reached advance level.

It is possible to avoid fatal consequences by undergoing regular examinations and taking care of one’s organism. The following symptoms should be paid attention to:

  • Anomalous vaginal bleeding, including bloody discharge after sex;
  • Profuse watery discharge with no smell, that is no part of cervical mucus production phases;
  • Pelvic pain or sensation of pressure, not related to a period;
  • Dysfunction of straight intestine and urinary bladder (urinary, faecal, wind incontinence).

A preventive measure, which helps to save the life and health of many women, is regularly visiting a gynecologist, with periodical (annually, since the age of 18) cytological examinations. Besides, one should make best efforts to avoid risks of developing cervical cancer, among which are:

  • Early start of sexual life;
  • Changing too many sexual partners;
  • Failure to use barrier contraceptive methods (preservatives);
  • Sexually transmitted diseases, specifically the human papilloma virus as well as HIV;
  • Smoking

Endometrial cancer

Endometrial cancer, which is a severe oncological disease of female reproductive system, can also provoke bleeding after sex. This symptom is common among such patients, in line with other pathological forms of menorrhagia (abnormally heavy bleeding at menstruation) and metrorrhagia (postmenopausal bleeding with spotting between periods).

This disease requires radical surgical therapy and proper subsequent observation.

Pregnancy and bloody discharge

As long as child bearing takes a normal course, with no symptoms of uterine tonus or descensus of the fetus, sex is not contraindicative, while for other women it even relieves the hardships, related to pregnancy. In some cases, patients confirm alleviation of back pain or headache after sexual intercourse. Besides, sex is rather a powerful psychoemotional factor in mutual support and unification of future parents.

However, spotting after coitus in pregnant women can be indicative of threatened miscarriage. In early stages this can point to uprise of uterine tonus, while in later stages it can testify to disturbance of pregnancy due to either preterm abruption of normally located placenta or affection of low located “uterine cake”.

In any case, recurrent bleeding after sexual intercourse requires immediate visit to a clinic, with subsequent examination and choice of treatment regimen, depending on etiology.

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