Discomfort or pain during intercourse is called dyspareunea. This symptom may be provoked by a variety of factors, from insufficiency of vaginal and cervical mucous glands and up to oncological diseases of the reproductive system. There are 10 most common causes of experiencing pain after intercourse, as well as possible methods of treatment. Among them are: atrophic changes of vaginal epithelium, candidiasis, nonmalignant vaginal diseases, uterine pathology, follicular cysts, acute adnexal affection and loss of pelvic fixation. Different etiologies of these diseases determine different approaches to their treatment.
Dryness/ atrophy of vaginal epithelium
Atrophic decline is quite a natural age-determined change of female genitalia. Due to increasing estrogen deficiency, the epithelium, which covers the vagina from inside, becomes very thin, and thus very little cervical mucus and lubrication is produced during sexual arousal.
In the setting of such degradation, the woman can experience pain during intercourse, which may be accompanied by micro traumas and precipitate bleeding. We distinguish between 2 directions among treatment and preventive methods:
- Medically induced delay of menopause, including intake of vaginal estrogen;
- Auxiliary (symptomatic) therapy in the form of gels and lubricants.